Dynasty (1271-1368) ended to the 370-year divisive period following the downfall
of the Tang Dynasty and again unified the whole country, paving the way for a
lasting unification through the Ming-Qing period.
|Blue and white porcelain|
During the Yuan Dynasty, economic and
cultural exchanges were frequent among different nationalities, and the Hui
nationality was formed during this period. The Yuan had an extremely vast
territory, drawing a basic outline of present China's territory.
The Yuan regime
can be roughly divided into three periods: the early, middle and late periods.
The early period began from the reign of Kublai Khan, Yuan Emperor Shizu, until
1294. During this period rulers adopted laws from the Han nationality and set up
political, economic and cultural systems that promoted social
|Yuan Dynasty sculpture|
The middle years (1307 to 1323) marked a
period of decline. During this period, social conflicts and the competition for
imperial power became intensified and included continuous uprisings all around
the country. The New Deal carried out by Emperor Yingzong was like a flash in
the pan, but it could not save the Yuan Dynasty from declining. Finally, the New
Deal failed and Emperor Yingzong died an unnatural death.
From 1329 in the late-Yuan period, peasant
uprisings accelerated the decline of the regime. Zhu Yuanzhang joined a peasant
force and later took command to defeat other forces and rebuild the dynasty of
the Han nationality, namely the Ming Dynasty.