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Non-Communist Parties in China

China is a country of many political parties. Apart from the Communist Party of China (CPC), which is in power, China has eight non-Communist parties. Since their founding the latter have established cooperative relations with the CPC to different extents. The non-Communist parties responded to the call put forward by the CPC to hold the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), and participated in the First Plenary Session of the CPPCC in September 1949 with the CPC and other democratic personages, at which the Common Program was adopted as the provisional constitution, and the Central People's Government was elected and founded, hence the founding of the People's Republic of China.

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, all the non-Communist parties have earnestly participated in the consultations and decisions concerning important issues in the state's political life; and many representatives of the non-Communist parties have been elected deputies to the people's congresses and members of the committees of the CPPCC at various levels. Many members of the non-Communist parties hold leading posts on the standing committees of the people's congresses, the committees of the CPPCC, government organs, and economic, cultural, educational, scientific and technological departments at various levels.

The non-Communist parties of China are neither parties out of office, nor opposition parties, but friendly parties that coexist over a long period of time, engage in mutual supervision, show utter devotion to each other, and share honor and disgrace, weal and woe with the CPC. They are parties participating in government and political affairs.

The eight non-communist parties are as follows:

China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang, founded in January 1948, now has more than 60,000 members. It is for the most part composed of former Kuomintang members and those who have historical connections with the Kuomintang. The current Central Committee chairman is He Luli.

China Democratic League, founded in October 1941, now has more than 144,000 members, mostly intellectuals at fairly senior levels. The current Central Committee chairman is Ding Shisun.

China Democratic National Construction Association, founded in December 1945, has more than 78,000 members, most of them are from the economic field or academic specialists. The current Central Committee chairman is Cheng Siwei.

China Association for the Promotion of Democracy, founded in December 1945, currently has nearly 74,000 members. Its membership is mainly drawn from intellectuals working in educational, cultural, scientific and publishing fields. The current Central Committee chairman is Xu Jialu.

Chinese Peasants and Workers' Democratic Party, founded in August 1930, it currently has more than 74,000 members, most of them work in the fields of public health, culture and education or science and technology. The current Central Committee chairman is Jiang Zhenghua.

China Zhi Gong Dang, founded in October 1925, currently has nearly 18,000 members. Most of them are returned overseas Chinese, relatives of overseas Chinese, and representative individuals and specialists and scholars with overseas connections. The current Central Committee chairman is Luo Haocai.

Jiusan Society, founded in December 1944, currently has nearly 78,000 members. They are mostly high- and medium-level intellectuals working in science and technology, culture and education, or public health. The current Central Committee chairman is Wu Jieping.

Taiwan Democratic Self-government League, founded in November 1947, has more than 1,800 members who are for the most part people born or with family roots in Taiwan currently residing on the mainland. The current Central Presidium chairman is Zhang Kehui.

 Jiusan Society

The Jiusan Society is an officially recognized political party in China. First established at Chongqing in 1944 as the Democracy and Science Forum, this organization changed its name to Jiusan or September 3 to commemorate Japanese surrender in 1945, and then became a formal political party on May 4 of the following year. Its political stand was to carry on the tradition of democracy and science, oppose the civil war and practice democratic politics. It is known as a party comprised primarily of intellectuals. The present program of Jiusan Society stipulates that organizationally, the party draws members from representatives of middle and senior level intellectuals in the fields of science, technology, higher education and medicine.

In September 1949, representatives of Jiusan Society participated in the First Plenary Session of the CPPCC at which the Common Program was adopted as the provisional constitution, and the Central People's Government was elected and founded, hence the founding of the People's Republic of China.

After the founding of the PRC, Jiusan Society solemnly declared: It accepts the leadership of the CPC and takes the Common Program as its political program. Since then, Jiusan Society as a democratic party has actively participated in governmental and political affairs.

Jiusan Society held its third and fourth national congress respectively in October 1979 and December 1983, deciding that it should focus on economic construction and devote itself to developing and improving the established multi-party cooperation led by the CPC and political consultative system, continually participate in government and political affairs and abide by the principle of coexisting over a long period of time, engaging in mutual supervision, showing utter devotion to each other, and sharing honor and disgrace, weal and woe with the CPC. 

Jiusan Society has played an increasingly important role in government and social affairs and economic construction such as safeguarding legitimate rights and interests of its members, helping CPC and government to adopt policies regarding intellectuals. Jiusan Society has made great contributions to the modernization drive in the past years.

Jiusan Society now has a membership of 78,000. The successive chairpersons of the Central Committee of the Jiusan Society are Xu Deheng and Zhou Peiyuan. Its present chairman is Wu Jieping.

  Taiwan Democratic Self-government League

Taiwan Democratic Self-government League was established in Hong Kong on November 12, 1947. At the time it was a political organization of Taiwan residents which was founded and existed outside Taiwan Province, sought to become free from the rule of the Kuomintang, implement democracy and regional self-government. In March 1949, the league moved its headquarters from Hong Kong to Beijing.

Representatives of Taiwan Democratic Self-government League participated in the First Plenary Session of the CPPCC in September 1949, at which the Common Program was adopted as the provisional constitution. After the founding of the PRC, Taiwan Democratic Self-government League has taken the Common Program as its political program, participated in government affairs and closely cooperated and mutually supervised with the CPC.

The League held its second and third congress in October 1979 and November 1983 respectively, at which it has shifted its focus on the socialist modernization drive. Ever since then, the League has devoted itself to economic construction, improvement of system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation, and the reunification of the motherland. The League always safeguards legitimate rights and interests of the Taiwan compatriots, maintains that China's sovereignty and territorial integrity bears no division, opposes two Chinas, one China' one Taiwan, and Independence of Taiwan, and opposes any foreign interference or aggression on Taiwan.

The seventh congress of Taiwan Democratic Self-government League was convened in December 2002. The congress approved the draft amendments to the constitution of the League; pointed out that reunification of the motherland is the country's main task in the new century, the most earnest wish of compatriots across the Taiwan Straits, and the bounden duty of Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League; and called for organizations at various levels to unite around the CPC Central Committee, and realize the ultimate goal of reunification and revitalization of China.

Taiwan Democratic Self-government League currently has more than 1,800 members who are for the most part people born or with family roots in Taiwan currently residing on the mainland. The successive chairpersons of the Central Committee of the Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League are Xie Xuehong, Cai Xiao, Su Ziheng and Cai Zimin. Its present chairman is Zhang Kehui.

  China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang

China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang was officially founded on January 1, 1948. Its main constituents at the time were former Kuomintang members for democracy and other patriotic personages. Their political stand was to overthrow the dictatorial rule of the Kuomintang and realize independence, democracy and peace in China.

After the outbreak of the War of Resistance Against Japan in 1937, the patriotic democratic members of the Kuomintang supported the National Anti-Japanese United Front initiated by the CPC and participated in patriotic democratic activities. As of 1943, two parts of them respectively planned to create the San Min Zhu Yi (Three People's Principles) Comrades' Federation and the Kuomintang Association for Promoting Democracy, to carry out anti-Japanese democratic activities. The San Min Zhu Yi Comrades' Federation held its First National Congress in Chongqing in the autumn of 1945, and the Kuomintang Association for Promoting Democracy held its First National Congress in Guangzhou in spring of 1946, each making their political programs and constitutions and formally declaring their establishment. At the end of 1947, the two organizations joined together with democratic elements from among the Kuomintang to hold their First Conference in Hong Kong and formally declared the inauguration of the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang on January 1, 1948. In November 1949, the two organizations, together with other patriotic democratic elements of the Kuomintang, called their Second Conference and have since operated as a single independent political party under the name of the China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang.

Representatives of China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang participated in the First Plenary Session of the CPPCC in September 1949, at which the Common Program was adopted as the provisional constitution. After the founding of the PRC, China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang has taken the Common Program as its political program, participated in government affairs and closely cooperated and mutually supervised with the CPC. Since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh CPC National Congress, China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang has  conscientiously participated in consultations on important issues concerning the state and management of state affairs, and made important contributions to China's socialist economic construction, and improvement of the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation.

Its Constitution revised in November 1988 stipulates that its political program at the present stage is to lead all party members, unite patriots living in China and residing abroad in favor of the reunification of the motherland to strive for the unification and rejuvenation of China, under the guidance of the basic line for the primary stage of socialism.

It is composed mainly of former Kuomintang members and those who have had historical connections with the Kuomintang, including a batch of staff workers in government organizations and intellectuals in the fields of science, technology, culture, education, and medical science. It currently has more than 60,000 members.

The successive chairpersons of the Central Committee of the China Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang are Li Jishen, He Xiangning, Zhu Yunshan, Wang Kunlun, Qu Wu, Zhu Xuefan and Li Peiyao. Its present chairwoman is He Luli.

  China Association for the Promotion of Democracy

Founded in Shanghai on December 30, 1945, its original members were mainly intellectuals such as Ma Xulun, Wang Shao'ao, Zhou Jianren and Xu Guangping in the fields of culture, education and publishing who resided in Shanghai during the period of the War of Resistance Against Japan. They stood for promotion of democracy and reform of the political power. It called on the Kuomintang to return the political power to the people, and to establish a united and constitutional government. Its aim is to carry out the democratic spirit and push forward the realization of democratic politics in China.

Representatives of China Association for the Promotion of Democracy participated in the First Plenary Session of the CPPCC in September 1949, at which the Common Program was adopted as the provisional constitution. After the founding of the PRC, the Association has taken the Common Program as its political program, participated in government affairs under the leadership of the CPC.

The Association held its fourth and fifth congress in October 1979 and November 1983 respectively, at which it has shifted its focus on the socialist modernization drive. Ever since then, the Association has devoted itself to economic construction, improvement of the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation, and the reunification of the motherland. Over the past years, China Association for the Promotion of Democracy has put forward many good proposals and made great contributions to the development of education, publishing and science and technology in China.

Its program drawn in 1988 stands for the promotion and improvement of socialist democracy, improvement of a socialist legal system, uplifting of the qualifications of the people, development of productive forces and turning China into a prosperous, culturally developed, democratic, strong and modern socialist country.

Its members are mainly intellectuals working in the fields of education, culture, science and publishing. It currently has 73,914 members.

The successive chairpersons of the Central Committee of China Association for Promoting Democracy are Ma Xulun, Zhou Jianren, Ye Shengtao and Lei Jieqiong. Its present chairman is Xu Jialu.

  China Democratic National Construction Association

The Association was founded by a number of national industrialists and businessmen, and some intellectuals who had a close tie with industry and commerce fields including Huang Yanpei, Hu Juewen, Zhang Naiqi and Shi Fuliang during the War of Resistance Against Japan. At that time, they held gatherings and informal talks, with varied views aired on the problems of the time. On December 16, 1945, the China Democratic National Construction Association proclaimed its formal establishment in Chongqing. Its political stand at the time was to guarantee the basic political rights and human rights of citizens, protect and develop national industry and commerce and oppose the dictatorial rule of the Kuomintang.

Its present constitution calls for the implementation of the CPC's policy of focusing on economic construction, acceptance of the leadership of the CPC, persisting in the tradition of self-education, adhering to the principle of democratic centralism and carrying out the policy of multi-party cooperation and political consultation.

Most of its 78,000 members are representative figures in the economic field. The successive chief members (chairpersons) of the Central Committee of the China Democratic National Construction Association are Huang Yanpei, Hu Juewen and Sun Qimeng. Its present chairman is Cheng Siwei.

  China Democratic League

The predecessor of China Democratic League was China League of Democratic Political Organizations, which was founded in October 1941 and composed of China Youth Party, National Socialist Party (later renamed the Democratic Socialist Party), Chinese Action Committee for National Liberation (later renamed the Chinese Peasants and Workers' Democratic Party), Chinese Professional Education Community, Countryside Construction Association and some individuals independent from these parties and organizations. The China League of Democratic Political Organizations held a national congress in Chongqing in September 1944, deciding to transform itself into a single party by replacing group membership with personal membership and changed its name to China Democratic League.

After the War of Resistance Against Japan ended in 1945, the China Democratic League insisted in opposing autocratic rule and demanding democracy, as well as opposing civil war and demanding peace. In October 1947, the Kuomintang administration declared that the China Democratic League was an illegal organization and forced its headquarters to disband. In January 1948, the China Democratic League held the Third Plenary Session of its First Central Committee in Hong Kong, establishing a temporary national headquarters. The meeting also openly declared the China Democratic League would cooperate with the CPC to strive for the complete realization of a democratic, peaceful, independent and united New China.

In 1997 it adopted a constitution which stipulates that its program is to hold high the banner of patriotism and socialism, implement the basic line for the primary stage of socialism, safeguard stability in the society, strengthen services to national unity and strive for the promotion of socialist modernization, establishment and improvement of a market economy, enhancement of political restructuring and socialist spiritual civilization, emancipation and development of productive forces, consolidation and expansion of the united patriotic front and realization of the grand goals of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

China Democratic League is mainly composed of middle-level and senior intellectuals in the fields of culture, education, science and technology. It now has more than 144,000 members.

The successive chairpersons of the Central Committee of the China Democratic League are Zhang Lan, Shen Junru, Yang Mingxuan, Shi Liang, Hu Yuzhi, Chu Tunan and Fei Xiaotong. Its present chairman is Ding Shisun.

 Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party

The predecessor of China Peasants and Workers' Democratic Party was the Provisional Action Committee of the Kuomintang, which was founded by Deng Yanda, a famous Kuomintang left-wing leader, and others in Shanghai in August 1930. In November of 1935, the Committee changed its name to the Chinese Action Committee for National Liberation. At that time, its main political program was to oppose the dictatorial rule of the Kuomintang and establish the power of the people. It participated in the establishment of China League of Democratic Political Organizations in March 1941. In February 1947, it was renamed the Chinese Peasants and Workers' Democratic Party.

Its present program includes the stand to accept the leadership of the CPC, adhere to multi-party cooperation and political consultation, practice democratic centralism and safeguard the rights and interests of party members and associated intellectuals.

The Chinese Peasants and Workers' Democratic Party called its tenth national congress in Beijing in November 1988. The congress pointed out that the party would act in accordance with the Constitution, uphold the banners of patriotism and socialism, and develop productive forces under the guidance of the basic line for the primary stage of socialism to turn China into a prosperous, culturally developed, democratic, strong and modern socialist country.

Most of its members are intellectuals in the fields of medical science, science and technology, culture and education. It now has a membership of 73,000.

The successive chairpersons of the Central Committee of China Peasants and Workers' Democratic Party are Deng Yanda, Huang Qixiang, Zhang Bojun, Ji Fang, Zhou Gucheng and Lu Jiaxi. Its present chairman is Jiang Zhenghua.

  China Zhi Gong Dang

Initiated by the American Zhi Gong Zong Tang, an organization of overseas Chinese, China Zhi Gong Dang was founded in San Francisco in October 1925 by overseas Chinese organizations in North America. Its Second Congress was held in Hong Kong in 1931, when it decided to establish the headquarters of China Zhi Gong Dang there.

After the outbreak of the War of Resistance Against Japan, China Zhi Gong Dang was devoted to mobilizing the broad masses of overseas Chinese to actively support the just cause in the motherland. China Zhi Gong Dang called its Third Congress in Hong Kong in May 1947. The meeting published a declaration, exposing and condemning the Kuomintang for launching civil war and continuing dictatorial rule, and calling for struggles for political democracy. On the invitation of the CPC in September1949, China Zhi Gong Dang sent its representatives to participate in the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). It was at this meeting that the "Common Program of the CPPCC" which served as a provisional constitution was adopted. China Zhi Gong Dang made its contributions to the founding of the People's Republic of China.

The headquarters of the China Zhi Gong Dang was moved from Hong Kong to Guangzhou in 1950 and then to Beijing in 1953. China Zhi Gong Dang held its seventh and eighth congress in October 1979 and November 1983 respectively, at which it has shifted its focus on the socialist modernization drive. Ever since then, the league has devoted itself to economic construction, improvement of the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation.

According to its new constitution passed at its ninth congress in December 1988, the party would uphold the banners of patriotism and socialism, unite all members and overseas Chinese it connects, carry out the glorious tradition of patriotism to strive for the achievement of the great cause of reunification and rejuvenation of the motherland.

Members of China Zhi Gong Dang are mainly returned overseas Chinese and their relatives, and experts, scholars and representative figures with overseas relations. It currently has nearly 18,000 members.

The successive chairpersons of the Central Committee of China Zhi Gong Dang are Chen Qiyou, Huang Dingchen and Dong Yinchu. Its present chairman is Luo Haocai.